Persian term Ilm-e-dawat or dawat-e-qaboor is the knowledge of communication with the sacred souls of Saints, Prophets and friends of Allah. It is a great knowledge according to the teachings of Sultan ul Arifeen Sultan Bahoo. He clearly explains its secrets and mysteries in his books. This knowledge is associated with different names like:
- Ilm-e-takseer (The knowledge of augmentation of soul through which seeker gradually reaches to Allah through friends of Allah.)
- Chemiya Akseer (Alchemy-The process by which metals convert into gold. In Faqr it means to convert a common man into a friend of Allah.)
- Tasaruf-e-tehqeeq (Possession of verification of every knowledge.)
Help in spiritual matter
We can find its religious base and source from the following Hadith of the Holy Prophet:
اِذَا تَحَیَّرْتُم فِیْ الْاُمُوْرِ فَاسْتَعِنُوْا مِنَ اَھْلِ الْقُبُورِ
Meaning: When you are worried or confused about your affairs, just seek help from the dwellers of the shrines.
Dawat-e-qaboor is a religious and spiritual act, in which verses of the Quran are recited in certain order on the shrine of some Sufi, Mystic, Saint or a Fakir through which the soul of the dweller of the shrine comes and helps the reciter, especially in some spiritual matter for instance, if he is stuck somewhere in his mystic path or facing some obstacles in continuing his journey towards Allah or if he has committed any mistake and has demoted from his spiritual status and other such spiritual matters. The sacred souls of Saints help the seeker through ilm-e-dawat either by suggesting him the way to solve his problem or by just taking him out of the problem or removing the obstacle of his way and elevating his spiritual status by their spiritual powers.
According to the teachings of Sultan ul Arifeen Sultan Bahoo, one should never recite ilm-e-dawat for worldly purposes. One should remember that there is a great difference between dawat-e-qaboor (seeking help from shrines) and the unveiling of states of grave. In the process of revelation from the graves, one sees the states of the dwellers of the graves by reciting the Quran on the graves of the common Muslims. The reciter comes to know the condition in which they are living in the Burzakh (intermediate state after death). Whereas, dawat-e-qaboor is recited only on the shrines of the Saints and Fakirs to communicate with them.
CONDITIONS FOR RECITING ILM-E-DAWAT
There are certain conditions for reciting ilm-e-dawat:
Reciter must be a Mystic perfect in the contemplation of
- The reciter must be a friend of Allah / Mystic / Wali and perfect in the contemplation of Ism-e-Allah Zaat. He must have gained eternal presence, as stated by Sultan ul Arifeen Sultan Bahoo:
- First of all, one should attain the nearness and Oneness in the Divine court, only then a person can be capable of reciting ilm-e-dawat. The person who does not recite dawat or communicate in this way demotes and becomes sick and insane. (Mehek-ul-Faqr Kalan)
One should be inwardly pure
- The communicator should be a perfect spiritualist, inwardly pure and the possessor of true faith. (Nur-ul-Huda Kalan)
After permission from the perfect spiritual guide dawat should be recited
- Without the permission of the spiritual guide, the seeker should not recite dawat, as it can be dangerous.
Not to adopt ways of superficial, imperfect and unaccomplished people
- The Fakir who is a perfect communicator, attentive and authoritative in reciting the perfect dawat needs not to compensate in the form of charity, count the auspicious and ominous timings, follow the stars and planets, set up an enclosure around, or lock and unlock himself time to time, and eating meat of specific animals (jalali, jamali, kamali), taking care of religious bath and physical prayers, protect himself from demotion, seizure and evil spirits, fasting, passing forty days of seclusion and struggle hard because all these affairs cause apprehensions, esoteric threats and superstitions and are adopted by the superficial, imperfect and unaccomplished people. (Nur-ul-Huda Kalan)
Spiritually accomplished ones should recite Dawat
- It is only the job of the spiritually accomplished ones to recite ilm-e-dawat keeping themselves safe from all the evils and inner disasters and remain in senses. It is better for the imperfect one, dare not to recite dawat even if somebody beheads him with a sword. If somebody gives him a lot of wealth for reciting it, it is better for the imperfect one to reject the wealth and do not try it. Do you know, the Satan had been reciting dawat for thirty thousand years and teaching the angels to recite it for thirty thousand years as well but this knowledge replete his being with intoxication, rapture, egoism, pride, hypocrisy, selfishness, self-conceit and lust, which prevented him from obeying the order of Allah and prostrating to Adam. (Nur-ul-Huda Kalan)
Dawat recited by inner tongue
- These imperfect people neither properly recite ilm-e-dawat nor do they know how to recite it. Whoever recites it attentively with his physical tongue (to fulfill desires of his innerself), an invisible army of demons and evil spirits gather around him. People of the material world recite such an imperfect dawat. Whoever recites the dawat attentively by the contemplation of his soul and the inner tongue (for spiritual elevation to reach close to Allah) all the guardian angels gather encircling him and they also start reciting it for his sake. (Nur-ul-Huda Kalan)
DOES THE PERFECT FAKIR NEED TO RECITE ILM-E-DAWAT?
Sultan ul Arifeen Sultan Bahoo says:
- It must be remembered that the perfect Fakir (the Universal Divine Man / al-Insan al-Kamil / Insan-e-kamil), who has gained the ultimate nearness to Allah does not need to recite Rather, a single sight of the perfect Faqeer is better than reciting dawat, frequently spending forty days of seclusion, gathering lacs of riding and on foot army and the troops of rapturous elephants and spending infinite wealth on them in the form of cash or other kind. The attention of the Universal Divine Man who knows to bestow it on the basis of his power of knowledge of the reality of nearness to the Divine Essence, the essence of the ‘Be’ (Kun ) and the Islamic creed لَآ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا اللّٰہُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللّٰہِ keeps on increasing day by day and does not cease till the doomsday. (Nur-ul-Huda Kalan)
THE METHOD OF RECITING DAWAT
- To visit the shrine of a Saint or Fakir at night, sit on the head side or foot side or mount the grave like a horse, recite the Holy Quran as much as possible (while reciting dawat Sultan Bahoo does not consider it wrong to mount the grave, although he warns the imperfect or inexperienced ones about the consequences).
- If the reciter possesses Divine presence, then he should not recite the Quran with the physical tongue. As it had polluted with bad and worldly conversation. The man of the pure soul should recite the Holy Quran with the tongue of his soul and the man of the Divine secrets should recite it with his secret tongue.
- When the communication with the soul starts, present the problem and then do as suggested by the soul.
DAWAT CAN BE RECITED FOR THE FOLLOWING PURPOSES
Dawat can be recited for the:
- Spiritual help.
- King of Muslims who is fighting a battle against the infidels.
- Dissenters and the Kharijite that may Allah grant them righteousness.
- Hypocrite Islamic scholars who do not accept the Truth.
- Peace and prosperity of the creation of Allah and for the blessing of rain.
- Help of the person who has become insane and spiritually demoted while reciting dawat.
- Islamic scholar who is also a man of good deeds and needs a religious help.
A LOGICAL ARGUMENT FOR ILM-E-DAWAT
On the issue of seeking help from the souls of the shrines, the Islamic theologians have great differences. One group has been denying and the other supporting and giving a verdict in its favour. Yet the true Mystics from all groups have always agreed upon it. As this matter belongs to the spiritual unveiling and observation, so the Mystics and Saints on the basis of their own spiritual observations and experiences, have always been convinced of the authority of the Saints to help the seekers of Allah in religious affairs even after death, through their beneficence and blessing.
Moeenuddin Chishti and dawat
A well-known event of ilm-e-dawat is that of Moeenuddin Chishti, who performed forty days seclusion regarding certain spiritual issue on the shrine of Ali ibn Usman al-Hajveri, commonly known as Data Gunj Bakhsh. When the problem was resolved, Moeenuddin Chishti uttered his pleasant surprise:
گنج بخش فیضِ عالم مظہرِ نورِ خدا
ناقصاں را پیر کامل کاملاں را راہنما
Explanation: O sacred soul of Ali Hajveri! You are the source of benefitting the world with Divine treasures and the true manifestation of the light of Allah. You are a perfect spiritual guide for the imperfect ones and really a true guide for the perfect ones.”
Ibn Taymiyyah was the first scholar who was the denier of the matter of seeking help from the shrines. When his attention had drawn towards the unveiling, spiritual experiences and observations, he rejected it referring to the subjugation of evil spirits and demons in such affairs, and then a large group of scholars followed him.
In the other group, Sufis as well as ulema are included. First of all Ibn Qayyim drew attention towards this issue and raised certain knowledgeable aspects in his book Kitab al-Ruh. He proved that the dead people can listen to and contact with the spiritually perfect ones in awaken state and the common people in their dreaming state. Countless books have been written on this matter. Here only one extract from the book Himma’at by Shah Wali Allah is given, he says:
Regarding this matter, it has been told to me that when almost four or five hundred years have passed after the death of Saints and Sufis, their physical powers which did not let their souls appear in pure and subtle form in their lives, become ineffective after such a long time. During this time, the airy contents of their souls disperses. In this state, when a person draws his attention towards the shrines of these Saints, his soul receives beneficence from their souls.
SULTAN UL ARIFEEN SULTAN BAHOO AND ILM-E-DAWAT
Sultan ul Arifeen Sultan Bahoo states a lot of benefits of ilm-e-dawat. A seeker can conquer all the physical and spiritual powers through it and great secrets reveal themselves upon him. Everything of the world unveils its reality on the person reciting dawat. Moreover he comes to know about the past, present and future. Moreover he can gain all kind of purposes. If this communication commences, the person of dawat listens to a voice from the hidden or certain Saint gives him the good news of success through dream, meditation, waham or perception.
Kinds of dawat and kinds of people who recite it
According to Sultan Bahoo:
- The significance and explanation of ilm-e-dawat is that, it is the spiritual communication recital of the Holy Quran. Hence the person who makes the Quran as his instructor, leader and the guide, becomes honorable in both the worlds. Now, the explanation of the Quran and knowledge of dawat are separately stated. Dawat is of several kinds for example, dawat of part, dawat of totality, dawat of Divine remembrance, dawat of reflection, dawat of the Divine light, dawat of a perfect Fakir and friend of Allah about whom Allah says:
اَللّٰہُ وَلِیُّ الَّذِیۡنَ اٰمَنُوۡا ۙ یُخۡرِجُہُمۡ مِّنَ الظُّلُمٰتِ اِلَی النُّوۡرِ۬ؕ
Meaning: Allah (Ism-e-Allah Zaat) is the Guardian of the believers. He brings them out of the darkness and takes them towards the light. (Al-Baqarah 257)
And dawat of the person who is precedent of all the universal Saints, about whom Allah says:
اَلَاۤ اِنَّ اَوۡلِیَآءَ اللّٰہِ لَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَیۡہِمۡ وَ لَا ہُمۡ یَحۡزَنُوۡنَ۔
Meaning: Beware! Verily, the friends of Allah will not have any fear nor will they grieve. (Yunus 62)
مرد مرشد اہل دعوت حق حضور
مرشد خود بین بود اہل از غرور
Explanation: The real (all powerful) spiritual guide is the possessor of dawat and Divine presence. Whereas the self conceited guide is arrogant.
Sultan Bahoo continued about dawat in these words:
If a proficient possessor of dawat looks upon a person angrily, by the command of Allah, that person dies in a moment. As the anger of Fakirs is the symbol of Allah’s wrath. On the other hand if he looks at somebody kindly, that person becomes spiritually alive and a true seeker of Allah. Often people proclaim that their spiritual guide is the most special one and their faith is complete. They say this because of their misperception, irrationalism, ignorance and foolishness. They should say that since their spiritual guide is the special one and the possessor of the special Divine secrets, therefore their faith is complete and sufficient.
Know that a person recites dawat either to captivate or overcome the demons and the supernatural agents. Or to respectfully summon the sacred souls of Prophets, Saints, the pious ones, Qutb, Ghawth, martyrs and the Muslims. That is why, it is essential that the reciter of dawat is spiritually perfect and proficient.
He may go near the shrine at midnight and recite dawat. If the soul of the shrine appears and solves the reciter’s problem through waham or inspiration or by some other way, then it is alright. Otherwise understood that the dweller of the shrine is spiritually dominant or he is getting the treasure and blessing of Divine light from the recitation of the Holy Quran, due to which he is delaying the answer.
Sultan Bahoo further states:
In such a situation, the reciter should ride the grave just like a horseman rides a horse. Although, to ride the grave is a sin, yet for the sake of certain Islamic venture or for the betterment of the Muslims, doing so is absolutely a virtuous deed. The person who recites the Quran and dives into the ocean of knowledge of Quran, becomes perfect in mystic knowledge and an accomplished person in dawat-e-takseer.
For him reciting dawat-e-qaboor near the shrine of a martyr or annihilated in Allah Fakir is such an act which graces with Divine wisdom, grandeur, command, wrath, magnificence and wonder. Meanwhile Allah grants such a Divine favour to the reciter of the dawat that everything in the earth and the sky from the Throne to the nether regions, even the Holy Kaaba and Madina of the Holy Prophet start shaking in an upheaval. What I can say about the other things? If the man of dawat recites such a dawat and wants to kill someone with his spiritual attention then by the Divine commandment Azrael (angel of death) would confiscate that person’s life anywhere between the east and west. I seek refuge of Allah from this.
باھو! بہر از خدا بہر از رسول
اطلاعے زیں بدہ اہل الوصول
Explanation: O Bahoo! For the sake of Allah and His Messenger inform the people who are capable to understand it.
Sultan Bahoo now explains about the true seekers:
The people who are perfect in reciting dawat but inspite of that they tolerate the torture of the cruel people and do not tease anybody, remain alert and aware of all their spiritual and physical states. The Fakirs who are possessor of dawat own the greatest powers. People should not think of them as inferiors and keep enmity against them. This is so because they are the seekers of Allah and the seekers of Allah are dominant on both the worlds.
Explanation: Every station of the earth and the sky is under the feet of a Fakir. That is why they always remain under his patronage.
It is the saying of the Holy Prophet
خَیْرَ النَّاسِ مَنْ یَّنْفَعُ النَّاسَ۔
Meaning: The best person is the one who benefits others. (Mehak-ul-Faqr Kalan)
Dawat, a naked sword
- The spirit in the grave feels the weight of the communicator heavier than a mountain when he rides on the grave to recite If the reciter lashes the grave with a straw, it inflicts such a wound to the spirit as if given by a sword, axe, lance, knife or a gun. The spirit cries out of torture and requests in the court of the Holy Prophet. From there he gets the sovereign command to do the job of the reciter. Then by the grace of Allah the problem of the communicator solves at once and he achieves his destination. Such a dawat is ‘a naked sword’, as the tongue of such a reciter is Allah’s sword. Additionally his soul is alive but innerself is dead. The Holy Prophet allows him to recite such a dawat.
ہر کرا رخصت نہ باشد از رسول
ایں مراتب کے رسد وحدت وصول
Explanation: One who does not get permission for reciting such a dawat from the Holy Prophet, how can he reach the levels of Divine union? (Mehak-ul-Faqr Kalan)
The stages of dawat
- These stages of dawat do not belong to the verbal conversation, rather relate to, “Renounce yourself and exalt to Allah ( دَعْ نَفْسَکَ وَتَعَالَ )”. It is the saying of the Holy Prophet, “Kill your innerself by the sword of mystic struggle ( اُقْتُلُوْا اَنْفُسَکُمْ بِسَیْفِ الْمُجَاھِدَۃِ )”.
Though the worldly person does not have the strength to go near the grave and fight the spirit. This is the path of mysticism in which the spiritual reality is dominant on the friends of Allah. Understand perfectly that the mystic struggle of Ism-e-Allah Zaat is more dominating than the struggle of the sword.
Sultan Bahoo further elaborates:
Dawat neither progresses nor executes by reciting just once. Unless the communicator recites it in such a way that while starting he thinks that he is facing Allah. Then makes the Holy Prophet his mediator and intercessor. Moreover considers Abdul Qadir Jilani as the possessor of the Divine Trust and thinks of himself as a judge. Hence closes his eyes to meditate that what is better than Allah which he can achieve by reciting dawat.
If he is completely sure that the entire creation is inferior to the Creator and nothing is better than Him. Then Allah will be kind and beneficent to him. Moreover he will turn both the realms at his disposal and enslave them for him.
The man who reaches this stage of spirituality dust and gold are equivalent for him. As the Ism-e-Allah Zaat possesses the perfect efficacy. His conscience enlightens by the Divine effects of the greatest name of Allah (Ism-e-Azam) and he acquires an unprecedented status. Every country and state from the east to west, from one corner of the earth to the other and every kingdom comes under his possession and at his beck and call. That is why it is said that a king is under the servitude of the possessor of Faqr. Whoever found victory, success and kingdom, it is only because of the Divine attention of a Saint and Fakir. (Mehak-ul-Faqr Kalan)
Dawat is a proof of Fakir’s eternal presence
- Dawat communicated by a Fakir is the proof of his eternal presence. Every word of the Fakir is like a word of Prophet Abraham. A Fakir blessed with the presence of Mohammadan Assembly is the companion of Allah. Such a Fakir who is the manifestation of Divine light is very rare in the world. Oh yes! The person whose innerself had cleansed, his inward adorn with the Divine gnosis and becomes a goblet of the Persian king in which he could view the whole world. Such Fakirs always remain silent, as they are connected to Allah and do not talk to others except Allah, as talking to other than Allah creates sorrow.
The world is an absolute sorrow. Whereas Faqr is Allah’s name which is a great blessing. The people of sorrow have no comparison to the blessed ones. The Fakir proficient in dawat is eternal and absolved of decline due to his physical and spiritual powers. Such Fakirs who are the reciters of dawat have got the ranks of ultimate nearness and union with Allah.
Sultan Bahoo elaborates:
The proficient possessor of dawat has no need to count stars and planets or check the auspicious and ominous timings, as he belongs to the status of, “Do not feel afraid or aggrieved. ” (Al-Ankabut 33).
When he goes near a shrine and meditates, he forgets himself and gets the logical answers from the spirit of the shrine. Although he is already aware of the conditions of the graves, yet he receives news from the shrine through his inward, so that his spiritual wish becomes explicit. The existence of the possessor of such a dawat is clean and his soul is pure. (Mehak-ul-Faqr Kalan)
Letter of Ism-e-Allah Zaat
- If the inward dawat is communicated with the order of continuous invocation and reflection, then the peculiar and the absolute spiritual path is opened. With which the soul is enlivened and gets busy in seeking the truth. Such a dawat is ‘the dawat of engrossment or absorption’. In this dawat theophanies of the Divine light shower from the letters of Ism-e-Allah like the rain drops. This rain of theophanies falls from the letters of Ism-e-Allah اللّٰہُ which are ا (A), ل (L), second ل (L) and ہ (H). The inner eye acquires the status of eye of certainty on seeing the theophanies erupting from the letters of the name of Allah and then the physical eye achieves the gnosis to the extent of knowledge of certainty.
The person who retreats from this certainty, loses his faith and becomes an infidel. The verification of this theophany of the letters of the name of Allah can be done through the Mohammadan method. When this theophany of the light of Allah emits, evils and devils gather around him in a large number with the intention to plunder, and make a show of the fiery theophanies. They involve the reciter in heresy, polytheism and deception. At this point the reciter should remain alert and aware.
Sultan Bahoo elaborates on how to tackle such circumstances:
To tackle such circumstances and states, one must have a very well informed and helpful spiritual guide who may grant him an eternal Divine favour of contemplation of Ism-e-Allah Zaat, by taking him out of the depravity of all the ups and downs of these stations. Wherever you find this virtuous possession, never leave it. The true faith is to follow the Mohammadan sharia from the beginning till end. The dawat of austerity is entirely different from the dawat of Divine secret.
دم رواں باشد بمثل تیغِ تیز
دعوتے چوں تیر وہم از دل بخیز
Explanation: When the sharp dawat is streamlined, it cuts like a sword. Such an extremely effective dawat arises from the inward through waham.
This type of naked sword dawat belongs to reciting the Quran with dead innerself (nafs) and alive soul in the company of the souls of Allah’s friends.
Sultan Bahoo says:
When the perfect Fakir starts reciting such life-taking dawat, no doubt the entire creation of part and whole, all the Prophets, Allah’s friends, souls of all the Muslims who recite the Islamic creed , the Holy Prophet Mohammad with almost one lac thirteen thousand of his Companions comprising the great Companions, Companions of Al-Suffa and Badr, the people of Madina, Arabs and non-Arabs are present around him. All the guardian angels, souls of all the Prophets from Adam to the seal of the Prophethood Mohammad, the spirits and supernatural beings of eighteen thousand realms, the great Empyrean, Kaaba of Allah, all the sections of the earth and sky start shaking and come under the possession of the communicator of dawat.
Until and unless he ceases to communicate dawat, the spiritual people cannot leave. No dawat is harsher than this one. If somebody recites it for eleven consecutive days, no doubt it will be effective. Swear by Allah’s honour, (it is so effective that) the angels may shake the earth of that country or perish it in topsy turvy, even if the inhabitants of that country and city are like Prophets and Saints.
The communicator should recite this dawat for one or two nights and if his job is difficult, he may continue it for the third night too. If he delivers it on more than three days, then its effect would not end till the doomsday. The man who doubts the effectiveness of dawat of Saifi prayer, the sword of Allah and the dawat of the Holy Quran, he is an absolute infidel. As the dawat of the holy verses is true, but its condition is that; just like mercury neither becomes oxide without a perfect alchemist nor does it become edible after being burnt, neither iron turns into gold without an alchemist.
Similarly the act of dawat neither becomes feasible and fluent, nor is safe from demotion without the permission of the perfect spiritual guide and the company of the Saints of shrines. It is not even a bit difficult for the perfect practitioner of the dawat to subjugate and enslave the possessor of the knowledge of alchemy. (Mehak-ul-Faqr Kalan)
Five kinds of dawat
- There are five kinds of dawat. First is the dawat which leads to the station of pre-existence. Second is the dawat which leads to the station of eternity. Third is the one which grants the rule over the whole earth from east to west and leads to perfection in the world. Fourth leads to the hereafter. Whereas the fifth grants the gnosis of Allah and presence of the Mohammadan Assembly and leads to the station of eternal observation of the boundless Divine light. (Shams-ul-Arifeen)
Ilm-e-dawat has an important role in the way of Faqr which is granted by the spiritual guide when the seeker reaches in the Divine presence. It is by the contemplation of Ism-e-Allah Zaat but the seeker should remember that his yearing must be the Divine vision and the presence in the Mohammadan Assembly.